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Navigating Medicare Part D: Common Issues and Solutions

medicare-part-d-sign on the black page and stethoscope

Medicare Part D is the prescription drug coverage component of Medicare. While it provides valuable insurance, its complexity often leads to common issues. Addressing these common issues can help you maximize your benefits and minimize your out-of-pocket expenses.

Issue: Confusing Plan Selection and Enrollment

One of the most significant challenges is selecting the right Part D plan. With dozens of plans available in each region, each with different formularies, premiums, deductibles, and co-pays, choosing the most suitable plan can be overwhelming.

While each Part D plan must offer a basic level of coverage mandated by Medicare, plans vary widely in terms of covered medications, cost-sharing structures, and pharmacy networks. Part D plans can include both generic and brand-name medications, but the costs of these plans vary based on the specific coverage options selected and the region in which you live.


You can use a tool like the Medicare Plan Finder comparison tool on the official Medicare website to compare plans based on your medications and pharmacy preferences. Also, consulting with a Licensed Medicare Insurance Agent will help. An LMIA has the knowledge and experience to guide you effectively, help tailor your plan to your needs, and support you throughout the process.

Issue: The Coverage Gap Donut Hole

The coverage gap, commonly known as the “donut hole,” is a period within the Part D benefit structure where beneficiaries experience higher out-of-pocket costs for their prescriptions. 

In Medicare Part D, there are four phases: the Deductible Phase where you cover full drug costs until a set amount. After, the Initial Coverage Phase begins, where you pay a copayment or coinsurance until total drug costs hit another limit. Upon reaching this limit, you enter this coverage gap, where you may pay a higher percentage of drug costs. After another threshold limit, you enter the Catastrophic Coverage Phase with reduced copayments for the rest of the year.

Although recent changes have reduced the burden of the donut hole, it remains a source of financial strain for many.


Beneficiaries can reduce costs during the coverage gap by timing and planning drug expenses carefully, to stay as long as possible in the initial coverage phase, as well as cut costs while in the donut hole. Opting for generic medications and buying in 90-day batches instead of 30 reduces your costs and helps you maximize the initial coverage phase. Reaching out to pharmaceutical company patient assistance programs, exploring state pharmaceutical assistance programs, and applying for the Extra Help program can offer significant financial relief to low-income individuals who qualify.

Issue: Formulary Changes

Part D plans have formularies, which are lists of covered drugs; these can change annually. A drug that is covered one year might not be covered the next, so you may find yourself facing unexpected out-of-pocket costs.


Review your plan’s Annual Notice of Change carefully each fall to understand any formulary changes for the upcoming year. If significant changes occur, consider switching plans during the Annual Enrollment Period (AEP). You may also be able to appeal formulary decisions through your plan’s exceptions process if a necessary medication is no longer covered.

doctor reaches palm out behind medicine bottles and piggy bank

Issue: Hassles of Prior Authorization and Step Therapy

Many Part D plans require prior authorization or step therapy for certain medications. This can delay your access to necessary medications and involves additional paperwork and coordination with healthcare providers.


Work closely with your healthcare providers to ensure that all necessary documentation is submitted promptly. Reviewing and understanding your plan’s requirements and process in advance helps ensure you are prepared for when you need to follow them. Additionally, if an appeal is necessary, be prepared to provide a detailed medical justification.

Issue: Losses Due to Cost-Sharing and Tiered Formularies

Part D plans typically categorize drugs into tiers, with each tier representing a different cost-sharing level. Higher-tier drugs can result in substantial out-of-pocket costs.


Discuss lower-cost options with your healthcare providers, including generic or lower-tier drugs. Some plans offer tiered exceptions, so you may be able to request that a higher-tier drug be covered at a lower-tier cost-sharing rate based on medical necessity.

Issue: Difficulties Transitioning to Medicare Part D from Other Coverage

If you are transitioning to Part D from another form of prescription coverage, such as employer-sponsored plans or Medicaid, you may face some challenges, including how benefits coordinate and having to avoid late enrollment penalties.

One way that can make transitioning difficult for you is if you have creditable coverage. This refers to health insurance that meets or exceeds Medicare’s minimum standards, including employer-sponsored plans, union plans, TRICARE, VA coverage, or other group health insurance. Having creditable coverage means the individual’s insurance provides prescription drug coverage comparable to Medicare Part D. Late enrollment penalties for Medicare Part D are imposed on individuals who don’t enroll when first eligible and lack creditable prescription drug coverage. These penalties encourage timely enrollment to maintain continuous coverage and deter selective enrollment for expensive medications.


Time your transition to avoid coverage gaps and penalties. A Licensed Medicare Insurance Agent can guide you on the best time to enroll and the best way to coordinate benefits. It is also crucial to understand the rules around creditable coverage to avoid late enrollment penalties.

If you are investigating your Medicare coverage options, have difficulties understanding your coverage, or have other questions, Wise Insurance’s team of experts can help. 

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